The rehabilitation doctrine that the disabled person should be treated as a whole human being has determined the medical, psychological and social segments of rehabilitation, on the basis of which the appropriate activities are developed. In this way, in the team in the teamwork in the rehabilitation process, the need for engaging a psychologist with the necessary psychological knowledge is expressed.
Despite the increased importance of psychological rehabilitation of physical invalids, there is still no single theory and methodological doctrine at the general level. Based on the knowledge of the psychological problems of the patients of the Clinic, the reference framework of the psychologist’s activities is integration:
- Contemporary knowledge in clinical, developmental and pedagogical psychology and neuropsychology;
- a holistic model of stress;
- model of psychosocial rehabilitation (formulated by the World Health Organization);
- Multidimensional disease model (contained in the International Classification of Disease, Injury and Cause of Death);
- previous clinical experiences;
with the use of mostly foreign literature from the domain of psychosocial aspects of habilitation and rehabilitation of persons with physical handicap.
The content of a clinical psychologist’s job consists of the following:
- complete exploratory and diagnostic treatment of the patient, with written findings and opinions;
- Assessment of disability adaptation;
- complete testing of organic CNS damage by modern neuropsychological diagnostic methods and means;
- psychological testing with developmental scales;
- assessment of working ability (ORS), upon completion of rehabilitation;
- professional orientation;
- surface individual psychotherapy;
- group psychotherapy;
- psychological counselling;
- intervention in crisis;
- family psychotherapy.
The problems that clinical psychologists deal with in diagnostics are:
- examining the level of intellectual functioning;
- Exploitation of personality;
- Differential diagnostics;
- Evaluation of the capabilities and level of adaptation of the patient and the family.
Clinical diagnostics uses recognized diagnostic techniques and an eclectic therapeutic approach.
The problems that clinical psychologists deal with in therapy are: a crisis after the emergence of physical handicap, posttraumatic stress, adolescent crises, anxiety, depression, phenomena of negation, psychological regression, excessive use of defense mechanisms, family dynamics, psychopathological decompensation, development motivations for long-term treatment of habilitation and rehabilitation, as well as professional rehabilitation.
The ultimate goal of psychological therapy is to provide psychological support and help people with a physical handicap and their families to overcome the disability and to improve the possibilities for an optimal level of independent functioning.
Psychologist jobs are performed with indivisible responsibility and competence. Therefore, in the following period, the work of psychologists should be improved, modernized and standardized, and theoretical and methodological approach in overcoming the emotional consequences of the handicap should be precisely defined.